There are lots of server tasks in Windows Server 2008 that can be done much faster with Windows PowerShell than with a GUI. What you’ll find in this article series are ten common server tasks all done on PowerShell.
In this two part mini-series you’ll learn how to:
- Change the local administrator password with PowerShell
- Restart or shutdown a server with PowerShell
- Restart a service with PowerShell
- Terminate a process with PowerShell
- Create a disk utilization report with PowerShellPart 2
- Get 10 most recent event log errors with PowerShell
- Reset access control on a folder with PowerShell
- Get a server’s uptime with PowerShell
- Get service pack information with PowerShell
- Delete old files with PowerShell
In today’s article we’ll start with tasks one through five; in Part 2 in this series we’ll continue with tasks six through ten.
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1. Changing the local administrator password with PowerShell
Let’s assume you’re logged in as a domain administrator on a Windows 7 desktop that belongs to your domain. Now, let’s say you want to change the local admin password on a remote server in Chicago named CHI-WIN7-22. After an account password is used for some time, the chances of it getting exposed gets higher. That’s why you need to change your passwords from time to time.
The first thing to do to change the admin password in question is to create an ADSI object for the local administrator on that computer. That can be achieved by typing this in your PowerShell screen:
This will essentially retrieve the admin account on CHI-WIN7-22 and assign it to an ADSI object named $Admin. The WinNT monicker in that string is case-sensitive and is a common source of error, so take note of that. If you want to connect to another computer, just replace CHI-WIN7-22 with the name of the computer you want to connect to.
Naturally, you’ll want to know first how long the password has been in use to determine whether or not the time has come to change it. You can obtain that information from $Admin by typing in:
That will display the time elapsed since the password of that account was last changed. However, since the resulting value is expressed in seconds, I normally divide it by 86,400, which is the number of seconds in a day:
The result will then be the same time elapsed but expressed in days, which I find more meaningful. If you notice, we used the Value property here. That’s because the PasswordAge is actually stored as a collection, and so we need the value of that collection in order to return a number that we can perform a division operation on.
Finally, you can change the password by invoking the SetPassword method and then using the new password as the argument. For example, if you want the new password to be S3cre+WOrd, then type:
Note: After you hit enter, don’t expect any confirmation message because there won’t be any. Changes will take effect immediately. That’s because what we’re using here is a method, not a cmdlet. Which means, unlike with cmdlets, SetPassword has no support for a -whatif or a -confirm.
That’s all there is to it. Let me now show you the steps we’ve discussed here in theory on an actual PowerShell:
2. Restarting or shutting down a server with PowerShell
Let’s now move on to the task of restarting or shutting down a server using PowerShell. Just like the first task, we’re still going to assume you’re logged in as a domain administrator on a Windows 7 machine that belongs to your domain.
For these tasks, we’ll be using a couple of WMI-based cmdlets, Restart-Computer and Stop-Computer. Although we won’t be showing them here, it’s worth mentioning that these cmdlets accept alternate credentials. Alternate credentials allow you to specify a user account other than the one you are already logged into so that you can perform actions that that (alternate) account has permissions for.
Another thing that’s nice about these cmdlets is that you’ll be able to make use of -whatif and -confirm. That means, if you want to do a restart or a shutdown, you’ll have a way of making sure you’ll be doing it on the computer you intend to do it on. This can come in handy if you want to perform restarts or shutdowns on a number of computers. You can just pipe a list or group of computers to these cmdlets.
To restart a remote computer or computers, the basic syntax is:
<strong>Restart-Computer -ComputerName <string[ ]></strong>,
wherein -ComputerName <string[ ]> is a string array that can be comprised of the name of a single computer or the names of multiple computers. Stop-Computer uses practically the same syntax. So for example, if you want to restart two computers named CHI-DC02 and CHI-FP01, the command would be:
<strong>Restart-Computer “CHI-DC02”, “CHI-FP01”</strong>
Here’s an actual PowerShell screenshot wherein we used the -whatif argument. You use a -whatif if you simply want to simulate what would happen if you would execute the command in question.
That was pretty straightforward. Let’s now try a more sophisticated example. Let’s assume you have a list of computers in a file named servers.txt. You can use the Get-Content cmdlet to retrieve the contents of that text file, like this:
So, if you have a bunch of computers that you want to restart on a regular basis, you can list down the names of those computers in a text file. Then each time you need to restart them, you simply use the Get-Content cmdlet. Here’s how we used Get-Content and Restart-Computer in a real-world scenario:
First, we got the content from the text file using Get-Content. Then, because we wanted to prepare for the eventuality that some computers would be offline, we piped the list to a where statement for testing. In the where statement, we ran test-connection, which is basically a ping on each computer.
The -quiet returns either true or false, while -count 2 means each computer will only be pinged twice. Those computers that were successfully pinged twice, were then passed along the pipeline.
Next, we used a foreach. Specifically, the objective was that: for each name that came out of the ping test, a green-colored message would be written saying that that computer was “Restarting”. The $_ stands for the current object in the pipeline. Next, the Restart-Computer cmdlet was called to restart each computer that could be pinged. We also used the -force parameter to kick off anyone logged on.
Finally, we used -whatif again to see what would happen without having to actually restart those computers.
3. Restarting a service with PowerShell
Restart-Service is the cmdlet used for restarting a service. Although this cmdlet does not have a built-in mechanism to connect to a remote computer, PowerShell Remoting can be enabled so that you can execute it locally via remoting on the remote computer. This can come in handy when you want to restart a service on a group of computers.
To restart a service locally, simply say: Restart-Service “service”, wherein “service” is the name of the service you want to restart. On the other hand, if you want to restart a service on one or more remote machines, then you can use the Invoke-Command cmdlet and PowerShell Remoting.
In the PowerShell screenshot below, you see two instances wherein we executed the Restart-Service cmdlet to restart the service called wuauserv, which is the Windows Update service. In the first instance, Restart-Service is executed locally. But in the second instance, it is executed on a remote database server named CHI-DB01 with the help of the Invoke-Command.
By default, Restart-Service doesn’t write any objects in the pipeline unless you use -passthru. So the additional information you see at the bottom (Status, Name, etc.) is a result of using -passthru. If the service runs on multiple computers and you want to restart the service running there as well, just add more computer names in a comma-separated list.
Another way to do that same task is by using WMI. First, you create a WMI object:
gwmi is the alias for Get-WmiObject.
Let me show you first the methods of this object. To do that, we’ll pipe the object to Get-Member (alias is gm).
If you notice, there is no method for restarting ther service. That means, we will have to stop the service using the StopService method and then start it again using the StartService method.
Here’s how you stop the service using the object’s StopService method. The parenthesis indicates it’s a method. If you get a ReturnValue of 0, that means the service stopped successfully. In case you get another value, you can research what that value means by reading the MSDN documentation for the Win32 service class.
To fire the service up again, you use the StartService method.
You can verify by executing the get-service command for that computer. Get-service allows you to connect to a remote computer, so you can simply get that service from the target computer to verify if it is in fact running there.
4. Terminating a Process with Powershell
Another task that’s commonly done on a server is terminating a process. To terminate a process, you use the Stop-Process cmdlet. Again, this can be executed locally or, if you want to stop a process on a remote system, you can use Stop-Process along with PowerShell Remoting.
There are two ways of terminating a process using the Stop-Process cmdlet.
The first one is pretty straightforward. You just run the Stop-Process command and then pass to it either the name of the process or its corresponding ID. In the screenshot below, the name of the process being killed is ‘Calc’ (which is really just the Windows Calculator). Note that Calc is running locally in this example.
The second involves using the Get-Process cmdlet to get one or more processes and then piping them to Stop-Process to kill all those processes at the same time. In the screenshot below, the process being killed is Notepad. Note that kill is an alias of Stop-Process. Again, just like Calc in the previous example, Notepad is running locally.
Let’s now move on to an example where we have a process running remotely. First, let’s fire up a process to kill. So here, we’re starting notepad on a remote computer named chi-fp01.
Next, let’s check whether the process is actually running. For this purpose, we use ps, which is an alias for Get-Process.
Ok. Now that we have a remote process to kill, let’s go ahead and kill it. Like what we did in our discussion on Restarting a Service, we’ll use Invoke-Command and PowerShell Remoting to run the Stop-Process expression on the remote server chi-fp01.
See how the Get-Process alias (ps), which is running in the script block, pipes the process to the Stop-Process alias (kill).
5. Creating a Disk Utilization Report with PowerShell
As admins, we often need to keep track of how much disk space is being used on our servers. We can accomplish this using WMI and the Win32_LogicalDisk class, which will give us information such as the Device ID, the size of the drive, free space, and a few other bits of information.
Using WMI, we can query local or remote computers. We can also perform those queries on either a single or multiple machines. In addition, we can: export the data we query to a CSV file or a database; create a text-based or an HTML-based report; or simply display the output to the screen.
Here’s a sample command using WMI on a local computer.
Get-WmiObject win32_logicaldisk -filter “drivetype=3” | Out-File c:\Reports\Disks.txt
We use the GetWmiObject cmdlet to return information from the Win32_LogicalDisk class. Then we employ the -filter to return only information related to drivetype=3, which stands for fixed logical disks like the c: drive. That means, information regarding USB drives and network drives are not to be included.The returned information is then piped to a text file named Disks.txt.
Here’s a similar example done in an actual PowerShell where we could see an actual output. Note that we are using aliases to shorten the command. Also, in this example, we specified that the output would include the device ID, disk size, the free space, and the system name.
While there’s certainly nothing wrong with that output, it sure could use a couple of improvements. For example, you might want to display the size and free space in Gigabytes instead of bytes. We can actually get a more elegant output by adding a few extra steps. Let me show you how.
For this purpose, we’re going to create a function named Get-DiskUtil. Although the succeeding example is going to show you how to do things interactively in the shell, you can actually put this function in a script file, load it into your profile, or load it to your other scripts so that you can use it again later on.
Here’s the function I’m talking about:
Let’s dissect that function now.
The function is going to take a computer name as its parameter and it will default to the local computer name.
Now we use the Process script blocks that this computer name property can be piped-in to the function. If it gets a piped-in value ($_), then it’s going to set the computer name variable to that piped-in value. Otherwise, it will take the computer name that gets piped-in as a parameter.
Next up is the GetWmiObject expression.
The output of that expression is piped to the Select-Object cmdlet (represented by its alias, Select). We then make use of a hashtable to create a custom property called Computername. This basically renames the SystemName of the current object ($_) to Computername. The DeviceID is passed along as is.
We then deploy a couple more hashtables. The first one takes the Size property, divides it by 1GB, expresses the result into two decimal points, and renames the property to SizeGB. The second one takes the Freespace property and does practically the same thing to it.
Next, we create a new property called UsedGB, which doesn’t exist in WMI. It simply takes the difference between the Size and FreeSpace properties and divides the result by 1GB.
Finally, we also create another property called PerFree, which stands for “percent free”. This shows the free space as a fraction of total disk size expressed in percentage. And that completes the function.
Here’s the function in action wherein we passed to it the name of the computer, piped the output to Format-Table (or ft), and set the final output to auto-size using -auto.
While all this looks nice and pretty, there’s still a lot more that we can get from this function. So let’s say that on a weekly basis, you need to get a disk utilization report of all the servers in your environment. Here are a couple of different ways you can work with this data.
The first thing we’re going to do is to save the results of our expression to the variable $data. That’s so we don’t have to type in the command repeatedly. Next, we pipe the results to the where object, do the ping tests (pinging it twice when it can be pinged), and then pipe the computer name to our newly-created Get-DiskUtil function.
You’ll know that the command is done executing when you get the prompt back.
That would mean the data has already been stored in $data. You can then pipe the information in $data to sort by computername and then set it to auto-resize. You can also send that information to Out-Printer or Out-File.
Similarly, if you want to load that information to a SQL database or an Excel spreadsheet, you can convert the data to a CSV file like this:
Later on, if you import that CSV file, you will be able to obtain a snapshot of the disk utilization status of those disks right at the time the command is run.
Here’s a portion of that snapshot:
As a final example, let me show you how to create an HTML report that perhaps you will want to put on your Internet server to show disk utilization. So that, as an IT admin, you can go ahead and take a quick peek at your disk utilization status even while you’re outside the office.
So again, you start by taking $data and pipe it to Sort Computername. You then pipe the result to the ConvertTo-HTML cmdlet. You also give it a title and specify a CSS path. The CSS part is needed because ConverToHTML does not do any formatting. So if you want your report to look pretty you’ll need that CSS file. Finally, you need to send the output to a file.
Now that your file’s ready, you can then look at the file by using the start command.
Here’s a sample of that HTML report.
Remember that the values on this report are up-to-date.
That wraps up Part 1 of this article. In the second part, we’ll take on 5 more server tasks that can be done using PowerShell.