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  • Nics&Bits

    Hello All,
    i am looking for information regarding how the bits are been transfers between Nics.
    what exactly is going on there, at 10Mhz 100Mhz or Ghz.
    is the data transfered like FM radio on carrywave of asort ?

    i am trying to learn how is/what is the difference between say , a simple desktop Nic architecture and a high end Server Nic.

    why is the diference in preformance , one can handle tons of data and the other not .

    where can i find technical material/information that will zoom in on this subject ?

    many thanks

  • #2
    Re: Nics&Bits

    seems like a good place to start, maybe beginning with the OSI model (at least the lowest levels of it)

    No specific answers as we don't know the experience and prior knowledge you have, but the tutorials here (http://www.lantronix.com/resources/networking.html) look like a good set
    Tom Jones
    MCT, MCSE (2000:Security & 2003), MCSA:Security & Messaging, MCDBA, MCDST, MCITP(EA, EMA, SA, EDA, ES, CS), MCTS, MCP, Sec+
    PhD, MSc, FIAP, MIITT
    IT Trainer / Consultant
    Ossian Ltd
    Scotland

    ** Remember to give credit where credit is due and leave reputation points where appropriate **

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    • #3
      Re: Nics&Bits

      Originally posted by Ossian View Post
      seems like a good place to start, maybe beginning with the OSI model (at least the lowest levels of it)
      thanks , i am looking for more engineering point of view , like if i would connect an oscilloscope between two Nics , what would i see ?

      how does the bits get "converted" or what is happening to them in transit ?

      i know this is not knowledge that is taught in any networking course that i can think off ,
      but i hoped that someone here maybe come across this information, and is willing to share it.

      regards,
      J

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      • #4
        Re: Nics&Bits

        AFAIK it is "just" voltage applied to the wires, so I presume your silly-scope will see an on-off pattern over time, but I tend to leave that side of things as something akin to witchcraft!
        Tom Jones
        MCT, MCSE (2000:Security & 2003), MCSA:Security & Messaging, MCDBA, MCDST, MCITP(EA, EMA, SA, EDA, ES, CS), MCTS, MCP, Sec+
        PhD, MSc, FIAP, MIITT
        IT Trainer / Consultant
        Ossian Ltd
        Scotland

        ** Remember to give credit where credit is due and leave reputation points where appropriate **

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        • #5
          Re: Nics&Bits

          The digital info is sent serially across the wires at whatever speed the line is running at (Ethernet is 10Mbps, FastEthernet is 100Mbps, etc). Each signal line is a pair of wires, with wire A 180 out of phase with wire B for noise suppression, same as twisted-shielded pair, but without the shield. Each connector is made up of 8 wires (4 pairs), but not all wires are active at all signal speeds. Ethernet and FastEthernet use pins 1+2 (paired) to send data, pins 3+6 (paired) to receive data, with the others 'quiet'. Anything faster uses all 8 wires, all the time. No timing or clock signal is sent along the wires, they only carry serial data. The syncronization is done using pattern matching at each end.

          As for how the workload varies between a nic in a workstation vs a nic in a server, it's all down to processing horsepower before the bits get put on the wire. The actual switching of the voltage on the wires to get the 5vdc logic on-off states is handled the same, no matter what NIC you're talking about.

          As for how the conversion of what you see on a web page is broken down to the individual packets sent across the wires, you need to read up on the 'OSI model', a specification which lays out just what you're asking for.
          *RicklesP*
          MSCA (2003/XP), Security+, CCNA

          ** Remember: credit where credit is due, and reputation points as appropriate **

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          • #6
            Re: Nics&Bits

            If you want to learn about data transfer in detail check this out. The book is rather easier to manage than a gazillion webpages. It goes into a lot of detail about how the data is transferred from a sending application to the system through the network to the receiving system and to the receiving application.

            http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/index.htm
            A recent poll suggests that 6 out of 7 dwarfs are not happy

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