BitLocker can be useful on servers, especially in remote branch offices where there’s often a lack of physical security. Bitlocker drive encryption in Windows Server 2012 works a little differently compared to how it works in Windows 8 in that BitLocker must be installed as a feature before it can be configured. In this article, I’ll describe how to install BitLocker on Windows Server 2012 and how to configure encryption for your server’s hard drives.
Once the server has restarted, open PowerShell again as an administrator. In this example, I’m going to turn on BitLocker drive encryption for the fixed data drive (D:) on my server.
There are three different types of encryption you can specify: AES128, AES256 or HARDWARE for drives that are Encrypted Drive Hardware compatible. Click here for more information on Encrypted Drive Hardware disks. The –UsedSpaceOnly parameter is new to Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8. It stops BitLocker from encrypting free space, making the initial encryption process much faster.
The –RecoveryPasswordProtector parameter tells BitLocker to generate a 48-bit recovery key automatically, and it will be required to unlock the volume. If your server has a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) chip, specifying the –TPMandPinProtector parameter to utilize the chip for storing the recovery key and to require a PIN to unlock the drive is more secure than using a recovery password.
Finally, it’s worth noting that BitLocker encryption is not supported on virtual machines (VMs). However, you can enable BitLocker drive encryption on the virtual machine management host and encrypt volumes that contain VM configuration files and virtual hard disk (VHD) files.
Notice that PowerShell states that protection is off on the volume where we’ve just enabled encryption. It will take some time for BitLocker to encrypt the used space. The volume is only fully protected when all the data is encrypted. To check the status of BitLocker encryption on a volume, run the following command: manage-bde –status d:
With the current configuration, someone would manually need to enter the recovery password each time the server is started to unlock the encrypted volume. You can unlock the volume by double-clicking the drive’s icon in File Explorer and then entering the recovery key as prompted or by using the following two PowerShell commands:
$SecureString = ConvertTo-SecureString “554367-697686-438647-043637-043450-470294-553267-713141″ -AsPlainText -Force
Unlock-BitLocker -MountPoint “D:” -Password $SecureString
Alternatively, you can turn on auto unlock using the following PowerShell command:
Enable-BitLockerAutoUnlock -MountPoint “D:”
Note that auto unlock only works on fixed data drives, and only if the operating system drive is also encrypted using BitLocker.
To disable BitLocker on a volume, run the following PowerShell command: Disable-BitLocker –MountPoint “D:”
Decryption may also take some time depending on the amount of data on the volume. Again, you can use the manage-bde command to check the status of the volume.